Forensic Science:
Forensic Science is rapidly progressing in the new millennium. The modern crime detection technique keeps the investigators one step ahead of criminals. The most important breakthrough has been the identification of the criminal as well as the victim whose body has been mutilated or is in an advanced state of decomposition. Career


The new area of computer crimes has also received due attention and with passage of new laws dealing with various aspects of information technology would enable the law enforcement agencies in detecting the computer crimes and catching the culprit. In most cases computer crimes involve financial frauds. In terms of clinical forensic medicine, forensic psychology is also gaining ground and playing a very important role not only in detection of crimes but also in correctional methodology and rehabilitation of perpetrators and victims. In terms of legal medicine per se, newer and newer laws are being enacted dealing with human body and biotechnology.

Various Areas Of Specialisation:

Forensic pathology -Forensic pathology is the application of the principles of pathology and medicine to the legal requirements of the investigating authority. They perform autopsies to determine the cause, manner and the time of death and work closely with the investigators in cases involving assault, homicide, accidents etc. A little-recognised role of the forensic pathologist is in areas of public health and safety and injury prevention.

Dentistry - These professionals are involved in identification of deceased persons through dental remains, bite mark analysis and examination of oral facial structures for determination of injury, possible malpractice or insurance fraud.

Forensic psychiatry & behavioral science -A broad range of legal issues are addressed by forensic psychiatry and behavioral sciences like, the patient's competence to stand trial, determining the mental condition of the accused, juvenile delinquency, child custody, parental fitness, spouse abuse etc. The psychiatrist carefully examines the past, and the present mental functioning of the miscreant so as to predict probable behavioral patterns for the future. Experts in this field are called upon to put together the criminal profiles of the most wanted for the investigators to understand his mind and course of actions, which will aid in apprehending him.

Forensic anthropology -It is the anthropologist who is initially called in to identify the victim and confirm whether the remains are human or not. They determine sex, age, state of health, ancestral background, and identify indications of trauma if any. They recreate the face and history behind the unidentifiable human remains. Some are proficient in the art of facial reproduction, which involves the modeling of how a face may appear in the living subject with only the surviving reference of a skull.

Forensic toxicology -It is the study of the harmful effects of chemicals on living systems with emphasis on the conditions under which they occur. The first challenge he faces is often the immediate identification of the toxin in a limited sample of blood, urine or gastric contents which can go on to clinch the case.

Wildlife forensics - Poaching violations, the Endangered Species Act and the United Nations Convention on International trade in Endangered Species are some of the factors which helped create this new field. The identification of wildlife evidence is much more complicated as evidence is often in bits and pieces of the animal remains. These experts are often required to develop new species.

Identification characteristics though research and detailed documentation to build a case and testify in courts. This field also includes crime scene photography, crime scene response, evidence collection, arson investigation, study of firearms and ammunitions, toxins and document examination in cases of forgery.

Soft Skills:In order to make a career in this field one has to have a keen for details and very strong analytical skills and powers of observation. They should also have a logical bent of mind and should possess good communication skills in order to give comprehendible testimonies in court.

Qualification and Job Details :The candidates who want to qualify for the 2-year M.Sc. in Forensic Science should have a graduate degree in science with Physics, Chemistry, Zoology, Botany, Biochemistry, or Applied Sciences. The state forensic departments employ professionals through the state public service commission exam. The CBI's forensic laboratory in Delhi recruits candidates through the Union Public Service Commission exams. One can also be employed in the vigilance department or take up teaching in colleges offering criminology courses. To freelance, one needs a certification by the state forensics department. Assignments will include insurance claims, document registrations, forgery and other white-collar crimes.

Remuneration:The various state forensics departments employ professionals to help the police in solving crimes and apprehending criminals. The CBI also employs these professionals on specific cases. The state department salaries begin around Rs. 4000 and increases according to the rank and years of experience. A freelancer in the field can charge according to requirements of the individual case. Experienced professionals can be employed in Law colleges and teach specialised subjects for psychology students.

Institutions :The state Forensics departments offer certificate courses in various fields of Forensic Sciences. These courses are recognised all over India and the students get ample hands on experience during their courses as they assist their seniors in handling and analysing the evidence.